Blog Directory CineVerse: February 2021

Here's the (unofficial) story on The Official Story

Tuesday, February 23, 2021

Intimate portraits are often the effective gateway for filmmakers to convey wider political or historical narratives. Such is the case with The Official Story, a powerful film from 1985, directed by Luis Puenzo, that depicts the repercussions of Argentina’s Dirty War on its survivors. Here’s our CineVerse assessment of this picture (to listen to a recording of our group discussion of this movie, click here).

What did you find admirable, memorable, intriguing, or different about The Official Story?

  • It attempts to tell a larger real-life political tale pulled from the pages of history by employing a personal narrative, focusing on a bourgeois schoolteacher who is mostly oblivious to the actions of her husband and Argentina’s oppressive government.
  • This story feels authentic and true largely because the filmmakers involved lived through this. The director, Argentinian Luis Puenzo, wrote this story while the military dictatorship was still in place and shot the movie entirely in the city of Buenos Aires, including the Plaza de Mayo site where the Mothers of the Plaza demonstrated regularly. Also, actress Norma Aleandro went into exile at the time this story takes place, not returning to her native land until the military government fell in 1983.
  • The movie isn’t sensationalistic or exaggerated. The filmmakers could have visually depicted more of the violence and suffering that actually ensued in the countr and introduced more dramatic twists, plots, and suspense, but they chose to tell the story primarily through the eyes of one woman who serves as a surrogate for the audience – late to learn about the terrible crimes committed by the government, as many viewers were.

Trace the path to enlightenment that Alicia travels. In order, what encounters and events open her eyes and change her mind about Argentina’s Dirty War in which 30,000 people disappeared?

  • During a dinner out with her husband’s colleagues and their spouses, one of the wives subtly criticizes and questions the fact that Alicia has an adopted daughter.
  • In her classroom, Alicia continually observes and confronts students who question or reject official textbook history. She senses a left-leaning mentality and open-minded cynicism in many of her students that she gradually grows more acceptive of toward the end of the film.
  • When she reunites with an old friend, she learns that the friend was tortured, imprisoned, and raped simply for having a dissident boyfriend.
  • A gathering at her in-laws’ home and a visit to her husband’s office impress upon Alicia that her husband is probably on the wrong side of history, possibly involved with shady government dealings.
  • She pulls down the box of her adopted daughter’s belongings and, without a word, realizes that the girl’s parents were probably killed or disappeared.
  • Alicia eventually learns that the parents of her adopted daughter may have been killed and that her maternal grandmother is alive and eager to reunite with the child.

Themes crafted into The Official Story

  • Wokeness: Becoming politically awakened and enlightened about the murder, torture, imprisonment, and plight of dissidents and their stolen offspring.
  • The importance of learning from history. Alicia is, fittingly, a history teacher – one who follows a government-approved curriculum and preaches adherence to recorded history but eventually learns that the history books can be filled with lies and deception.
  • The guilt of complicity. Even though Alicia has been relatively unaware of and oblivious to the crimes committed by the government and the suffering of other Argentinians, she gradually realizes that she’s inadvertently been part of the problem, which drives her desire to seek the truth and a resolution about her adopted daughter.
  • Truth is its own reward, a sentiment expressed by Alicia’s students, many of whom demonstrate that they don’t accept what is taught in history textbooks.
  • Profound moral dilemmas:
    • Alicia feels compelled to learn the truth about how she came to adopt Gaby and who Gaby’s parents were, but this may result in her losing Gaby and ruining her marriage.
    • Likewise, Alicia is trained and expected to teach her students government-approved history, but many of her students object to what is taught, eventually contributing to Alicia questioning “the official story” of Argentina’s recent history. This could lead to Alicia losing passion for her profession or getting fired.
    • Also, without objecting or questioning, Alicia listens to many people around her as they make subtle or direct political statements, and only by the end of the film does she address injustice directly by confronting her husband; this puts her at risk physically (we see her attacked by her husband), jeopardizes her marriage, and ultimately results in Gaby possibly living with her biological grandmother.

Similar films worth mentioning

  • Z
  • El Norte
  • Missing
  • The Magdalene Sisters
  • Oranges and Sunshine
  • Argentinian films made about Argentina’s Dirty War, including Funny Dirty Little War, Night of the Pencils, and Veronica Cruz
  • Sophie’s Choice

Other movies directed by Luis Puenzo

  • Old Gringo starring Gregory Peck and Jane Fonda
  • The Plague starring William Hurt and Robert Duvall


Why The Silence of the Lambs still gets under our skin

Thursday, February 18, 2021

Three decades after making its theatrical debut, The Silence of the Lambs continues to terrify, intrigue, and inspire. Performing a closer examination of this seminal film and asking deeper questions reveals several key points as well as a greater appreciation of what is now considered one of the very finest films in several categories, including horror, police procedural, psychological thriller, and drama.

Why does The Silence of the Lambs still matter 30 years later, and how has it stood the test of time?

  • It matters because of its exceptional craftsmanship. Think about the way the film turns the tables on us as viewers by employing various clever techniques.
    • Example #1: From the start, we identify with and admire Clarice – a small, outnumbered female in a world dominated by men. We often see Clarice’s point of view and are commonly reliant on her discovery of the facts to help uncover the mystery; interestingly, near the end of the film the POV shifts abruptly after the lights go out in Buffalo Bill’s subterranean lair; suddenly, we are given Bill’s perspective, which shows a terrified Clarice seen through night-vision goggles – which makes us all the more fearful for her.
    • Next, note how we are tricked by Lecter’s clever escape scheme in which he masquerades as a wounded police officer; after that stunt, the audience isn’t sure what to trust with their own eyes.
    • Example #3: The film brilliantly utilizes parallel editing – also called crosscutting – in which the shots of two separate but concurrent sequences, each taking place at separate locations, are juxtaposed to make us think that a SWAT team has amassed outside of the home of Buffalo Bill, whom we see reacting to the ring of his doorbell; only it’s Clarice who has actually pressed his doorbell, at the same time a plainclothesed officer rings the bell of a different house. What a sequence.
    • Also, ponder the amazing sound design throughout the film – especially that climactic scene where Clarice enters Bill’s home: we hear barking, yelling, rock music, flapping sounds, and heavy breathing – all of which add up to an unnerving audio wallpaper. Earlier, we hear subtle but strange and disembodied breathing, cries, and sighs (including an exhalation audible when the Gypsy moth is removed from the throat of Buffalo Bill’s first victim), as well as low-frequency rumbling and water plops.
  • Furthermore, The Silence of the Lambs remains an innovative study in suspense and horror.
    • Here’s a horror movie in which the hero is a woman, the leading man is a psychopathic killer who eats people, there is no sex or romance, and there are two monsters: one on the loose and another who is caged – at least for most of the film. Buffalo Bill may be more abhorrent to us, but Hannibal is just as violent, dangerous, and loathsome, although the audience is rooting for him to express his intelligence, match wits with Clarice, and aid her in her task, which makes him more sympathetic.
      • Director Jonathan Demme said: “It’s a suspense movie with a female protagonist who is never in sexual peril. It’s a slasher movie that is devoid not only of slasher scenes but of the anticipation of seeing them.”
    • It’s riveting, as well, because there’s a time limit involved: We know that Clarice only has three days in which to find Buffalo Bill or his captive will be killed.
    • The Silence of the Lambs has also stood the test of time because it showcases its genre film roots proudly and plays upon our fears of real-life psychopaths and serial killers.
      • It riffs on old-time horror movies like Frankenstein, Nosferatu, King Kong, and Psycho – all of which contain monsters that, to some extent, Lecter resembles or makes us think of – as well as 2001: A Space Odyssey (its villain, HAL 9000, inspired Hopkins’ performance, he revealed) and Aliens – another horror film that features a strong female protagonist who hunts monsters and plays the part of a rescuer.
      • Interestingly, it features brief cameos by two renowned horror directors: Roger Corman and George Romero.
    • It would have also conjured up earlier memories of John Hinckley and his obsession with Jodie Foster before attempting to assassinate Ronald Reagan; real-life serial killer Ted Bundy who donned a cast to appear benign and lure victims into his vehicle; and another true-life serial killer, Ed Gein, who also used the skin and human remains of his victims.

In what ways was this film influential on cinema and popular culture or set trends?

  • Unlike predecessors that depicted psycho killers and mentally deranged sociopaths, this movie attempts to employ a forensic psychology approach to better understanding the mindset and motivations for the criminals.
    • Film reviewer Richard Scheib wrote: “Prior to The Silence of the Lambs, the psycho movie genre’s view of psychology and behavior had been rooted in absurdly outmoded and melodramatic forms of Freudian trauma – Psycho (1960) and successors – or where killers were stripped of human motivation and seen as incarnate faces of evil – Halloween (1978) and Friday the 13th (1980) and various sequels. The forensic psychology psycho-thriller gave the psycho film psychological motivation – it took a glimpse inside the heads of psychopaths and what made them tick behaviorally.”
  • While many earlier or films had already established the formula of the “final girl” – in which the last survivor is a vulnerable female who has been pursued and attacked by an antagonist, this picture refreshingly presents a strong female protagonist who is the hunter instead of the hunted, the hero instead of the victim, and the rescuer. Clarice presents an inversion of the “knight in shining armor” male archetype who has to rescue the fair maiden locked in the villain’s castle.
  • This movie’s influence was wide and vast in popular entertainment.
    • Consider all the imitators that came in its wake, including pictures like Se7en, Copycat, Kiss the Girls, Beyond Bedlam, Just Cause, The Cell, Angel Dust, When the Bough Breaks, The Bone Collector, etc.
    • It may also have inspired the forensic police procedural TV dramas that came a few years later, including CSI, NCIS, Criminal Minds, Bones, Without a Trace, etc.
    • It created a cottage industry of sequels, prequels, and TV shows based on the film’s characters, including three subsequent movies featuring Lecter, the NBC series Hannibal, and the brand-new CBS series Clarice, which debuts this month.
    • The Silence of the Lambs has also been constantly referenced in pop culture over the past 30 years, with mentions, spoofs, and parodies in films like Austin Powers in Goldmember, Fatal Instinct, and Dumb and Dumber along with nods in The Simpsons, South Park, and Family Guy.

What themes, messages, motifs, or symbols are explored in The Silence of the Lambs?

  • Breaking through barriers. Clarice, a lone female in a male-dominated profession, is challenged with breaking through the glass ceiling. Symbolically, the film features multiple barred doors that Starling must pass to enter the domains of both Lecter and Buffalo Bill, respectively. And interestingly, Clarice has to ascend and descend through different levels to achieve her goals. The film opens with her jogging up a hill and climbing over training obstacles, but soon she must descend various levels to reach the villains – both Lecter and Buffalo Bill.
  • Usurped gender conventions. Consider that Bill is a seamstress, regarded by many as a female vocation, while Clarice is a rugged and resourceful FBI agent, a role often assigned to males.
  • Voyeurism and watching. We are given many shots from Clarice’s point of view. But more often we observe recurring POV shots that demonstrate Clarice is being watched as well as shots of Clarice being outnumbered, dwarfed, objectified, or leered at by groups of men or a single man. “All of the shots contribute to the impression that Clarice is not in command of her own space, but is threatened by others,” wrote Roger Ebert.
  • Pairing and twinning. Lecter and Clarice serve as parallel characters.
    • As Ebert surmised: “Both are ostracized by the worlds they want to inhabit – Lecter, by the human race because he’s a serial killer and a cannibal, and Clarice, by the law-enforcement profession because she is a woman. Both feel powerless – Lecter because he is locked in a maximum-security prison… And Clarice because she is surrounded by men who tower over her and fondle her with her eyes. Both use their powers of persuasion to escape from their traps… And both share similar childhood wounds.”
  • American iconography. The film repeatedly uses the colors red white and blue as well as American flags and additional symbols of patriotism – such as the Washington Memorial and the Capitol building as well as a cake sporting the seal of the Department of Justice. In a perverse subversion of the American Eagle, Lecter displays the spread-eagled body of one of his victims.

What elements from this movie are showing some wrinkles?

  • Controversially, it taps into fears and misconceptions by heterosexuals of gay and transsexual people in how it depicted Buffalo Bill as a confused and disturbed homosexual/wannabe transgender who may or may not have come out of the closet. Many in the LGBT community despised this portrayal as stereotypical and damaging.

What are this film’s greatest gifts to viewers?

  • The mainstream introduction of one of contemporary horror cinema’s greatest and most iconic characters – Hannibal the cannibal – thanks, in large part, to the exceptional and unconventional manner in which Anthony Hopkins plays this character. There’s a good reason why this persona has launched so many spinoff works: Lecter is spellbinding, unpredictable, inventive, perceptive, and smarter than anyone else in the room, which makes him a refreshing departure from a mindless monster or cliché slasher killer.
  • Equally great is the character of Clarice, who, as a sturdy, resourceful, and quick-witted heroine, has aged so gracefully over 30 years. Thinking back now on how far women have come in the past three decades, how they command greater respect and admiration as well as demonstrate more agency, it’s easy to observe Clarice and see her as a trailblazer helping to supplant the archetype of the passive female lead, the obligatory love interest or sex object, or the damsel in distress. Jodie Foster infuses this role with incredible humanity and vulnerability but also quiet conviction, resiliency, and fearlessness. She and Starling prove they should not be underestimated. As with Hopkins, this is probably Foster’s finest work.
  • Its third greatest gift is its subjective camera and commitment to close-ups. By continually bringing us up close and personal to the character’s faces, we are provided an often unsettling intimate view into the minds of these characters, particularly Starling and Lecter. These POV shots are logical, in that we see through his or her eyes, and we are then given a counterpoint shot, but these tight shots are most effective psychologically because they eliminate the periphery and focus intently on what the character is seeing, hearing, perceiving, and experiencing – causing the viewer to do the same.
  • Demme was quoted as saying: “The most powerful shot of all is when you put the viewer right in the shoes of one of the characters so they are seeing exactly what the character is seeing.”


There's no such thing as bad pizza, sex, or noir

Tuesday, February 16, 2021

In the 1940s and 1950s, Hollywood studios cranked out noirish fare regularly. Many of these cheap quickies rapidly evaporated from the public consciousness, being the disposable entertainments they were, but others were ripe for rediscovery generations later – despite their cut-rate pedigree.

One such example is Woman on the Run, directed by Norman Foster. CineVerse identified this movie’s multiple merits last week, as summarized below (to listen to a recording of our group discussion, click here).

How is Woman on the Run different from or similar to other noir films you’ve seen?

  • It does not feature an evil femme fatale spider woman who leads men into danger. However, it does spotlight one of the three major noir character types: the middle-class victim who gets pulled into a dangerous situation by a stroke of fate – in this case, a bystander who witnesses a mob murder.
  • Like many films noir, it’s set in a large city; here, it’s San Francisco. But different from many other noirs, which are often low-budget affairs shot on confined studio sets, Woman on the Run often features memorable outdoor location shooting across San Francisco and Northern California, using famous landmarks like the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, and the Ocean Park Pier amusement park in Santa Monica.
  • It has the visual aesthetics of classic noir, by virtue of its use of canted angles, tracking shots, and chiaroscuro lighting. But consider the many daytime scenes shot; when you think of noir, you often imagine dark, shadowy nighttime sequences.
  • This film also has a slightly more comedic and lighthearted tone then many hard-boiled and gritty noirs.
    • Film blogger Eric Hillis wrote: “It stands out from the crowd by just how comedic it is. The dialogue by Ross Hunter is some of the wittiest you’ll find in noir, and Sheridan is the perfect vessel for this particular brand of snark.”
  • Interestingly, this film adopts a different approach than expected. Here, neither the police investigator nor witness husband are the primary character we follow; alternatively, the filmmakers spotlight his wife, a relatively safe character who isn’t being chased by the police or the mob. We come to care more about her as we realize, as she does, that she and Frank have stronger feelings for each other than previously thought.
    • Per film historian Philippa Gates, Woman on the Run is one of the few noir films foregrounding a heroine's quest, and especially one where "the heroine's quest is not necessarily complicated by [heterosexual romance ..., in fact] the love interests are absent for the majority of the story."
    • “While the film has the trappings of a classic film noir mystery, the murder and chase almost take a backseat to the psychological examination of Eleanor and her husband,” wrote film blogger Morgan Lewis.

What are some possible missed opportunities or questionable decisions related to this film?

  • The title is misleading. Eleanor, the wife, is not technically “on the run.” She’s trying to find and warn her husband. More accurately, it’s her husband who is on the run – or, to be specific, hiding out.
  • Arguably, the major twist reveal, that Dan is not a reporter but actually a hitman for the mob out to kill Frank, occurs a bit too early and, at least for modern audiences, can be a bit easy to sniff out ahead of time. The advantage, however, of revealing his duplicitous nature early on is that it builds suspense about whether or not Eleanor will unwittingly guide Dan to her husband and his demise.
  • Although the climactic amusement park scene is relatively well-staged, edited, and executed, it could have been even more tense and gripping if the filmmakers had included a well-edited sequence showing the cops reaching Frank in time and killing Dan before he can murder Frank. Likewise, instead of showing the floating body in the water and then quickly revealing that the dead man is Dan, it would’ve been better if the disembodied hand of Frank reached in from out of frame to touch Eleanor on the shoulder as she looked down at the dead man, giving us a brief moment of suspense as to who survived. That would have been a Hitchcockian touch.

Films or other works that come to mind after watching Woman on the Run

  • Strangers on a Train and Lady From Shanghai, two noirish pictures that each feature amusement parks or funhouses as a pivotal setting
  • The Third Man, which also has us follow an evasive figure who does not emerge until well into the film.


30 years of lambs, Lecter, and liver with fava beans

Sunday, February 14, 2021

In Cineversary podcast episode #32, host Erik Martin sends birthday wishes to The Silence of the Lambs, which was released 30 years ago on Valentine's Day, 1991. The film's co-producer, Ed Saxon, joins Erik to examine why this film is worth celebrating all these years later, its cultural impact and legacy, what we can learn from the movie today, how it has stood the test of time, and more. 
Ed Saxon

To listen to this episode, click here or click the "play" button on the embedded streaming player below. Or, you can stream, download or subscribe to the Cineversary podcast using Apple PodcastsStitcherSpotifyGoogle PodcastsBreakerCastboxPocket CastsPodBeanRadioPublic, and Overcast.

Learn more about the Cineversary podcast at and email show comments or suggestions to


2021: A space oddity

Monday, February 8, 2021

As a low-cost, direct-to-video sci-fi entertainment, Europa Report provides an impressive return on investment for the filmmakers and viewers alike. Buoyed by a credible premise (the enticement of visiting a moon in our solar system that scientists believe may sustain life) and an intriguing cinematic setup (in which we rely on found footage, recorded by cameras on the spacecraft, that have survived a doomed mission), this picture serves as a refreshing “science-fact” take on sci-fi entertainment – albeit with a few flaws.

The CineVerse faithful screened and discussed Europa Report last week, with the following observations documented (to listen to a recording of our group discussion, click here).

Other films that come to mind after watching Europa Report

  • Gravity
  • 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • 2010: The Year We Make Contact
  • Moon
  • Apollo 13
  • Sunshine
  • Alien

How is Europa Report different from or similar to previous fact-based science-fiction films?

  • It’s a mashup of several different genres, including science-fiction, science-fact, thriller/suspense movie, mockumentary, meta-movie, and found footage film.
    • As a found footage movie, we are meant to uncover the events that unfolded during and mysteries surrounding the fate of the space mission via surviving recorded video footage. Except for footage featuring mission control leaders on Earth, every shot is sourced from a camera found within or without the ship.
  • The story is not told in linear chronological fashion; instead, the filmmakers choose to provide a fragmented narrative that jumps around in time and location. We know early on that something has gone horribly wrong with the mission and one of the crewmembers has died; eventually, we learn what, how, and why it happened.
  • This picture doesn’t follow predicted formula. The scenario is classic sci-fi horror, in which we might expect an encounter with a dangerous alien life form that threatens the lives of the astronauts. And, following that form, each member of the crew dies, leaving a “final girl” as many horror films do. However, there is no gratuitous or graphic violence, no jump scares, no viscera or gore, no nudity or romantic intrigue, and no betrayal or villainy by a human character. Instead, the movie takes a realistic approach by simulating NASA spacecraft, using stock footage of actual launches, focusing on a bona fide celestial body in our solar system, depicting the professionalism of each crew member, and featuring a variety of ethnicities, ages, and personalities – in keeping with astronauts we’ve seen on the International Space Station.
  • Unlike those sci-fi predecessors listed above, this isn’t a mega-dollars special-effects-laden extravaganza with showy set pieces, impressive creature effects, or expensive pyrotechnics. The only glimpse we get of an alien life form comes at the very end, revealed in a handful of seconds.

Themes laced into Europa Report

  • The price paid for man’s unquenching thirst for knowledge. At least twice in the film, the astronauts mention how their lives are insignificant compared to the quest for cosmic truth and information. Rosa says: “Compared to the breadth of knowledge yet to be known... what does your life actually matter?”
  • The fragility of our physical human existence. This story demonstrates how even the smallest errors or twists of fate can lead to disastrous consequences that can quickly terminate corporeal life. Furthermore, there is an irony to the fact that we’ve created and perfected the incredible technology required to explore space, but our physical limitations can prevent us from fully experiencing or surviving extraterrestrial contact.
  • Claustrophobia and lack of privacy or normalcy. We are given an intimate look into the confining and restricting spaces these astronauts have to live in.
  • Guilt and regret. We perceive how the older senior engineer experiences guilt at the fact that his partner died in space after saving his life. Likewise, the crew undoubtedly feels conflicting emotions after Rosa disappears in the ice. The resourcefulness, resilience, and selflessness of human beings operating at their peak. The film demonstrates, on multiple occasions, how brave and intelligent acts of altruism and unselfishness help save crew members and preserve the video footage for posterity.


Suds and the City

Monday, February 1, 2021

Soapy and silly are two words that some used to describe Richard Brooks’ 1954 melodrama The Last Time I Saw Paris. But it’s hard to deny the pristine sheen coating the surface of this big-budget A-list Technicolor outing from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. For our CineVerse group’s take on this somewhat over-the-top flick, read on (to listen to a recording of our group discussion of this film, click here).

What about this movie got your attention or left an impact – good or bad?

  • It’s an impressive array of talent on display here, especially the prestigious and deep cast, including a 22-year-old vivacious Elizabeth Taylor, Van Johnson, Walter Pidgeon, Donna Reed, Ava Gabor, and Roger Moore in his first Hollywood screen role. Director Richard Brooks went on to make several key films in the 1950s and 1960s, the source material is an F. Scott Fitzgerald short story, and the screenwriters included the Epstein brothers, famous for crafting the script for Casablanca.
  • The film has been criticized for lack of character development and an overreliance on weepy melodrama.
    • Consider that Reed’s sister character is given very little screen time, and her apparent brooding jealousy isn’t clarified to the viewer until the end of the picture.
    • Helen is depicted early on as a bit of a materialistic, flirty playgirl, making us think that she will turn out to be a bad catch for Charles; but once they are married she remains relatively faithful and loyal to Charles.
    • Charles’ flirty and philandering nature seems to materialize out of the blue, clashing with his image up to that point of an ambitious and hard-working loyal spouse; it can be assumed that his frustrations as a writer and emerging alcoholism are behind these unsavory character traits, but this creates a confounding and contradictory character.
    • Likewise, Charles’ descent into wallowing self-pity is an eye-rolling development that makes his character unsympathetic.
  • It’s obvious that this film has fallen into the public domain and persists in a state of ignominious visual disrepair. It begs for a restoration of some kind to rekindle its dulled color cinematography. Unfortunately, a cleanup job would likely reveal van Johnson’s splotchy complexion problems all the more; it looks as though he’s suffering from some kind of rash or dermatological condition.

Themes present in this movie

  • Don’t take what you have for granted. Helen dreams of being rich, while Charles yearns for success as a writer. Both learned that money and prestige don’t necessarily make you happy and that it’s important to appreciate the gifts and blessings you have in hand rather than continually fantasize about something possibly unattainable.
  • Self-reflection and forgiveness. Marion realizes that she’s been punishing Charles – by keeping his daughter away from him – for not reciprocating her affection and for choosing Helen. By the conclusion, Marion has acknowledged this fault and forgiven Charles.
  • Good fortune is fleeting and not guaranteed. Helen is struck down in the prime of her life, the family’s oil fortune dries up, and Charles’ ability to see his daughter is jeopardized.

Films that Last Time I Saw Paris remind us of

  • Till the Clouds Roll By
  • The melodramas of Douglas Sirk like All That Heaven Allows, Magnificent Obsession, and Imitation of Life

Other films directed by Richard Brooks

  • In Cold Blood
  • Elmer Gantry
  • Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
  • Blackboard Jungle
  • The Professionals


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