Blog Directory CineVerse: June 2023

Parallax to the max

Wednesday, June 28, 2023

Directed by Alan J. Pakula and produced by/starring Warren Beatty, The Parallax View emerged as a captivating political thriller in 1974. The narrative follows Joseph Frady, an intrepid reporter (Beatty), as he embarks on an investigation into a series of enigmatic deaths associated with the clandestine Parallax Corporation. Frady's pursuit unveils a perilous network of political intrigue and secrecy.

Regarded as a classic in the conspiracy thriller genre, The Parallax View delves into themes of government corruption, assassination, and the manipulation of public perception. The film benefits from the stylish guidance of Pakula, who adeptly weaves a web of tension and paranoia throughout the story. The cinematography, editing, and skillful use of visual symbolism further contribute to its lasting impact. Among its standout sequences, this movie showcases an iconic and unforgettable “carousel scene,” which occurs at a political rally staged within a domed carousel, enveloping viewers in suspense.

Click here to listen to a recording of our group discussion of The Parallax View, conducted last week.

Why would have audiences connected well with this film upon its release in 1974? How would it have captured the zeitgeist of the times? Americans were growing more suspicious of authority and distrustful of government in the wake of Watergate, the Vietnam War, the Warren Commission findings, and the assassinations of major leaders. The movie drew upon the collective memory of significant assassinations in the 1960s, such as those of John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Martin Luther King Jr. These high-profile events had already fostered an atmosphere of suspicion and conspiracy theories in society. The Parallax View capitalized on this existing sentiment, presenting a chilling narrative that delved into political assassinations and the subsequent cover-ups.

Indeed, there was a pervading, brooding sense of paranoia and cynicism in the culture, and conspiracy theories were becoming more popular to explain political mysteries.

The Parallax View also effectively tapped into the tense atmosphere of the Cold War era, where the fear of communist infiltration and suspicions of covert government activities were widespread. Audiences were already preoccupied with the notion of hidden forces at play, and the film skillfully played into those concerns by exploring the concept of a secretive, powerful organization with its own hidden agenda. Consider that many Americans felt helpless to affect change and ignorant of what might really be going on.

Lastly, remember that the 1970s was the golden age of the political/paranoia/assassination thriller, and this was regarded among the best of that subgenre.

Filmmaking elements that make this movie so effective include superb compositions that frame subjects in a way to evoke a feeling of powerlessness and isolation and advance the mood. Recall the use of long shots and extreme long shots that show a character as vulnerable, alienated, and lost in their surroundings; yet, despite being so far away visually from the subject, we can hear them as if they were close by. Pakula and company employ vast empty spaces to progress this emotion of feeling dislocated and alone; close-ups are used sparingly.

A distinctively dark visual style is emphasized, too. Consider that cinematographer Gordon Willis is responsible for all the Godfather movies, eight Woody Allen films, and three Pakula films; he was known as “the prince of darkness” for his reliance on shadows and often preventing a character’s eyes from being seen clearly. Occasionally, Willis utilizes shallow focus that reveals a blurred, shadowy, mysterious environment surrounding the protagonist.

Moreover, this film uses brilliant editing to pace the building tension, including a bold use of Soviet montage-style editing during the training video. The montage theory posits that otherwise normal images that are juxtaposed with unrelated images take on a whole new meaning due to new associations the viewer makes with the image before it and after it.

Also particularly impactful is the shrewd use of sound effects and sound editing in The Parallax View, which forces you to pay attention to the small aural details.

What’s interesting about the narrative and POV in this movie is how the first half unfolds in a conventional narrative style, but the second half leaves you feeling more unsure about everything. In the first half, the audience is more omniscient than the hero; but after the midway point, we’re not as informed as Frady.

This is a movie that also plays with the audience. Like Hitchcock’s Psycho, we learn that most of the narrative has potentially been a red herring meant to mislead.

Finally, storywise, the movie doesn’t dumb down or fall into clichés. There is no romantic subplot or obligatory sex scene, and no overacting by Beatty. His character treats the threat as something real and probable, not a fantastical cartoonish villain.

Similar works

  • Hitchcock's Foreign Correspondent, Notorious, The Man Who Knew Too Much, North by Northwest
  • John Frankenheimer's The Manchurian Candidate (1962) and 7 Days in May (1964)
  • European works like The Battle of Algiers (1964), Z (1969), and Day of the Jackal (1973)
  • Other political action thrillers, including:
    • Executive Action (1973)
    • Day of the Dolphin (1973)
    • Chinatown (1974)
    • The Conversation (1974)
    • Three Days of the Condor (1975)
    • All the President’s Men (1976)
    • Capricorn One (1977)
    • Winter Kills (1979)
    • Blow Out (1981)
    • Missing (1982)
    • No Way Out (1986)
    • JFK (1991)

Other films by Alan J. Pakula

  • Klute
  • All the President’s Men
  • Sophie’s Choice
  • Presumed Innocent
  • The Pelican Brief


Portrait of a film on fire

Tuesday, June 20, 2023

Directed and written by feminist filmmaker Céline Sciamma, Portrait of a Lady on Fire is a 2019 French film starring Noémie Merlant as painter Marianne and Adèle Haenel as Héloïse, the daughter of a countess who is determined to marry off her reluctant daughter to a wealthy Italian aristocrat and present him with a portrait of his future bride, who refuses to pose for the painting. Set in 18th-century France, this narrative emphasizes a blossoming romance between a female painter and her subject.

It’s easy to see why the picture was voted the 30th greatest movie ever in the Sight & Sound 2022 critics poll. Its vibrant and sensual cinematography and visual aesthetics are worthy of immense praise, as they skillfully capture the natural beauty of the surroundings and the intimate moments shared by the characters. But most of all, the sparkling, emotionally honest, and gracefully nuanced performances by Merlant and Haenel linger long in the viewer’s memory. Portrait of a Lady on Fire has been lauded for its sensitive depiction of same-sex love, its intellectually stimulating thematic elements, and its overarching artistic brilliance. The work’s ability to connect with audiences around the world has embedded its reputation as a significant contribution to feminist filmmaking and queer cinema.

To hear a recording of our CineVerse group discussion of this film, conducted last week, click here

What helps this film resonate so strongly is its ability to serve as a counterpoint, perhaps even a rebuke of, the traditional male gaze. The notion of the male gaze emphasizes the tendency in visual arts, particularly movies, to predominantly depict women from a heterosexual man’s point of view. The male gaze reveals how narrative choices and the camera lens itself commonly depict females as sexually enticing objects of desire with physical forms designed to be appealing to male sensibilities.

Here, the filmmakers present an opposite approach: the female gaze, in which our expectations are subverted when, for example, a character is shown in nude or partial nude, or an erotic scene takes place. Instead of trying to titillate with images male viewers would find arousing, Sciamma and her collaborators focus more on organically building an erotically charged scene/environment, spotlighting facial glances, expressions, aroused eyes, and tactile sensuality between two characters of the same sex, and concentrating on the unspoken but nearly palpable emotions conveyed by Marianne and Héloïse.

Think about how the painting of a woman in the 18th century would have been a form of the male gaze long before cinema; these paintings of many undoubtedly reluctant or powerless women were often commissioned by men and meant to be cherished particularly by males, who likely saw the female forms painted as desirable. But by having a woman character paint Héloïse, the male gaze is disrupted, and we come to see Héloïse through a fellow woman’s eyes.

Remarkably, the movie features no significant male characters; men in this story rarely have a speaking part, and the opposite sex isn’t even shown until the last act. This is clearly a film about women and made primarily by women, and the absence of males sends a strong message about the film’s thematic agenda. This work celebrates female camaraderie and sisterhood solidarity. Except for the countess, the women in this story work together, participate in a quiet subculture of shared values, and demonstrate gendered empathy.

Furthermore, the subplot about servant Sophie’s abortion is a bold and unexpected deviation from the main romantic narrative. It further emphasizes the difficult choices women in this era had to make, the lack of agency they possessed, and the ingenuity and resourcefulness with which they often had to operate covertly. The overhead shot of Sophie being treated by the midwife while an infant grabs her hand is an unforgettable image of cognitive dissonance. And Marriane’s insistence on painting a re-creation of the abortion adds yet another unanticipated element to the story that informs her character.

Notably, Portrait of a Lady on Fire is replete with contrasting sensory stimuli, including a wet and cold body and her dripping canvasses adjacent to warm fireplaces, dark clothes worn outdoors on bright days, and the din of the pounding surf juxtaposed to two silent smitten lovers.

The film also benefits from a sparse soundtrack that ingeniously employs existing classical music – Vivaldi’s soul-stirring summer movement from The Four Seasons – and an eerily beautiful and evocatively harmonized a cappella hymn from some downright witchy women.

Portrait of a Lady on Fire delves into themes of love, desire, and the constraints imposed by societal expectations. It sheds light on the challenges faced by women within a patriarchal society, as Marianne and Héloïse's relationship develops clandestinely. The film thoughtfully explores concepts such as agency, autonomy, and the power dynamics inherent in relationships.

Looking deeper, beyond the superficial or expected. Héloïse asks: “Is this how you see me?” after her initial portrait is completed. She is dissatisfied with Marianne’s lack of sensitivity and emotional perception. The prime takeaway is that, ideally, the connection between an artist and his or her subject should be symbiotic, synergistic, and reciprocal. Portrait of a Lady on Fire suggests that the muse, or subject, can participate in the art and collaborate with the artist so that the creator and the later audience of the art get to see the true nature of the human subject.

Criterion Collection essayist Ela Bittencourt posited the following: “Sciamma…creates a provincial world in which art—both as a technique governed by solemn tradition and a practical tool for remaking one’s world—is a part of daily life, and in which the artist’s gaze is reciprocal, not one-sided. Similarly, the film presents the act of falling in love not through the (quintessentially male, one might say) lens of conquest and possession but through one of equality between the two lovers, creating a reality in which each can truly see the other.”

Prominent theme #2? The “power of art to validate, preserve, and console after a romance,” or a relationship, is over, according to New Yorker critic Rachel Syme, who wrote that the movie is also “about the erotic, electric connection between women when they find their desire for creative experience fulfilled in each other.” Indeed, keeping love and passion alive through art is one of the central tenets of this picture. Marianne and Héloïse will always share a bond through her paintings and mutual love of art.

Portrait of a Lady on Fire is a treatise on tragic, doomed, lost love, as well, colored by the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. Orpheus was a gifted musician married to Eurydice. After her untimely death, Orpheus embarks on a perilous journey to the Underworld in an attempt to retrieve her. The gods grant him permission under the condition that he refrains from looking back until they both reach the realm of the living. Unfortunately, just before their escape is complete, Orpheus succumbs to temptation and glances back, resulting in Eurydice vanishing forever. This timeless tale explores themes of love, loss, trust, and the consequences that arise from disregarding divine directives.

“What thrums beneath every scene is a sort of fraught longing — for a love that could not speak its name, certainly, but also for all the larger liberties that women living in the 1700s, even ones as privileged as these, couldn’t dream of: the freedom to marry by choice or not at all; the freedom to earn an independent living; the freedom just to walk down an empty beach, alone,” wrote Entertainment Weekly reviewer Leah Greenblatt.

Similar works

  • Ammonite
  • The Piano, and Portrait of a Lady, both by Jane Campion
  • Blue is the Warmest Color
  • The Handmaiden
  • Carol
  • The World to Come
  • Titanic
  • The myth of Orpheus and Eurydice

Other films by Celine Sciamma

  • Water Lilies
  • Tomboy
  • Girlhood
  • Petite Maman


Fellini takes the road less traveled

Tuesday, June 13, 2023

Even 69 years following its original release, Federico Fellini's La Strada remains an iconic masterwork of world cinema. The film takes us on an unforgettable journey into the life of Gelsomina, a wide-eyed young woman who is sold by her mother to Zampanò, a merciless and wandering strongman performer. Together, they traverse the picturesque landscapes of Italy, with Gelsomina enduring his mistreatment and exploitation. Their performances serve as a backdrop to their tumultuous relationship, characterized by a power dynamic of dominance and submission. Along their path, they encounter a diverse cast of characters and situations that challenge their identities and the fragile bond they share.

Fellini's artistic brilliance shines through every frame of La Strada, particularly in his unique storytelling style, which weaves together elements of poetry and dreams. The film transports us to a world that skillfully captures the profound emotions and inner conflicts of the characters, offering a profound exploration of human nature. Beyond its surface narrative, the movie’s subtextual exploration delves into universal themes of love, sacrifice, and the complexities of the human condition.

In 1957, La Strada was honored with the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, solidifying its esteemed place in film history. Even today, the film continues to be revered as a timeless classic, serving as a testament to Fellini's unmatched artistic vision and storytelling prowess.

Click here to listen to a recording of our CineVerse group discussion of La Strada, conducted last week

This film marked a major fork in the road in Italian cinema, representing a deviation from the neorealism movement that took root over the previous nine years in Italy. Italian neorealism works were often shot in near documentary style, on location and often using nonfactors/nonprofessionals – commonly working-class people and the impoverished. The messages of neorealism films are often bleak, realistic, and plausibly pessimistic—without any sentimentalizing, glossy coating, or tacked-on happy endings. These films don’t give us black-and-white, good vs. evil tropes: characters are commonly depicted as the victims of poverty and a corrupt, unjust, and misery-inducing political system. Also, with neorealism, there is a deliberate focus away from big-name stars, complex psychological themes and issues, and intricate plots and actions.

But in La Strada, professional American actors are cast. The story can be interpreted to function more as a lyrical fable, myth, or Christian allegory than a recreation of a realistic event. Magical realism is imbued in the narrative (as evidenced by Gelsomina’s wide-eyed discovery of and encounters with awe-inspiring characters like the Fool and the disabled child).

Criterion Collection essayist David Ehrenstein wrote: “Fellini’s treatment of their adventures and interactions doesn’t aim for a sense of commonality on the level usually associated with naturalism. There’s an odd touch of fantasy hanging about this childlike waif and the sullen brute who keeps her, and more than a touch of the magical to the circus high-wire walker known as The Fool, whom they meet along the way.”

In responding to his critics who accused him of betraying neorealist ideals, Fellini said: “There are more Zampanos in the world than bicycle thieves, and the story of a man who discovers his neighbor is just as important as the story of a strike.”

This film was highly influential, inspiring many filmmakers, including Akira Kurosawa, Martin Scorsese, and Krzyszlof Kieslowski, and songwriters (the tunes Me and Bobby McGee and Mr. Tambourine Man were inspired by La Strada). Its success catapulted Fellini into the pantheon of prominent figures in the film industry, paving the way for his subsequent masterpieces.

Fellini’s wife, Giulietta Masina, who plays Gelsomina, embodies this character as an instantly sympathetic child-like innocent who may be mentally challenged in addition to being naïve and inexperienced about the world. Her large, expressive eyes, squat stature, comedic timing, vulnerable demeanor, and underdog charm draw comparisons to Chaplin.

Some believe that Gelsomina represents a dated and problematic character today, as she is often bullied and tolerant of Zampano’s toxic masculinity, serving as more of a passive martyr than an inspirational character. But consider the effect her absence and death has on Zampano and the legacy she has left behind (the tune she played on trumpet that continues to be hummed and remembered by those she encountered). Recall, too, that Gelsomina, demure and passive throughout most of the story, begins to demonstrate some agency and resistance to Zampano, but ultimately proves too fragile to overcome his brutal and callous nature.

Christina Newland, another Criterion Collection essayist, wrote: “Gelsomina, a creature of luminous simplicity, suffers as though she was born to do so. And in the spiritual sense, that may be true; her suffering is purifying. There is no delusional rationalizing of an abused woman, no justification; she knows Zampanò cannot love her, that even his tiny slippages of kindness must inevitably be followed by another act of savagery. She loves him not despite his being a monster but because he is one. She may be victimized, but she is not pathetic; her self-awareness is what makes the distinction…Wretched though Gelsomina may be, she is elevated by her compassion, not her martyrdom. Even left traumatized and freezing on a roadside, she remains steadfast. In the literal sense, this seems outrageous, debased, superhuman. In the Fellinian sense, it is the most human of all gestures.”

Fascinatingly, the narrative abandons Gelsomina toward the conclusion, revealing that she had died, impoverished and sick, years earlier. We are forced to follow Zampano, the insensitive beast responsible for her demise. We see how he has further devolved since parting with his indentured servant—losing any semblance of pride in his work, drinking too much, inciting violence, and finally crawling along the shoreline with guttural cries of assumed remorse for not appreciating or reciprocating love to Gelsomina. The last shot suggests that perhaps his soul is worthy of redemption now that he has finally acknowledged his failure and his many sins; or it could be that Zampano is doomed to suffer the remainder of his life in a state of pain, grief, and regret as punishment for his transgressions.

Note that Fellini remarked that he could identify with Zampano; and he purposely cast his wife in the role of Gelsomina, which she played as a 10-year-old form of herself. A longtime philanderer, the director may have created La Strada to convey his culpability and self-admonishment.

Symbolically, Gelsomina is associated with the ocean and water, while gruff and dirty Zampano is more akin to the earth and the Fool is a light and airy creature linked to the air. In an alternate reading, she embodies the soul, Zampano the body, and the Fool the mind, per late film Pauline Kael.

The power of love and sacrifice is a resonant message espoused by La Strada. Gelsomina comes to love Zampano and feel a connection with him, a man truly unworthy of her affection. By following the Fool’s advice – that her purpose is to love Zampano – and by returning to Zampano as a loyal companion when she doesn’t have to, she willingly chooses the more difficult path, or the road less traveled, so to speak, to feel like her life has meaning.

Another key reading: Living up to your potential or fulfilling your destiny. The Fool tells Gelsomina that “everything in this world has a purpose,” even a relatively insignificant pebble, and certainly Gelsomina. He suggests that Zampano likes her but doesn’t know how to express it. The fool’s words inspire her to remain with Zampano and to encourage him to accept and, ideally, love her. She is motivated to live and work harder in her role as assistant and companion, which will hopefully make Zampano a better person who values her role in his life. Unfortunately, this choice proves to be her undoing, as Zampano fails to improve as a human being and she becomes a psychologically broken individual after he kills the Fool.

Further themes to mine include repentance and redemption. La Strada can be ultimately interpreted as an allegory about a man who recognizes and accepts – although it is too late to do anything about it – that he was loved and was capable of loving. While the story ends with this painful acknowledgment, and we don’t know what will happen to Zampano in the future, it’s possible that he learns from these experiences and becomes a better human being.

Additionally, this film serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of toxic masculinity. La Strada continues to resonate as a cautionary tale about how an imbalance between the sexes and patriarchal dominance can ultimately devastate both genders. “La Strada is best seen as a poetic expression of the yin-yang relationship between the masculine and feminine, and the destructive tendencies lurking beneath the surface of traditional masculinity. If the binary nature of Fellini’s gender politics is perhaps a bit outdated, the film’s clarity of vision is such that it remains striking both for its immediacy and the articulation of the emotions that propel its archetypal characters,” wrote Slant Magazine critic Derek Smith.

Similar works

  • Beauty and the Beast
  • Raging Bull
  • Sweet and Lowdown
  • Films by Charlie Chaplin, including The Circus

Other prominent films by Fellini

  • I Vitelloni
  • Nights of Cabiria
  • La Dolce Vita
  • Juliet of the Spirits
  • Roma
  • Amarcord


A 1950s romcom far from Notorious

Tuesday, June 6, 2023

As a fairly representational romcom from the 1950s, you can do a lot worse than Indiscreet, released in 1958 and brought to life by director Stanley Donen and screenwriter Norman Krasna, who adapted it from his own stage play titled Kind Sir and received an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Screenplay. The film stars the legendary Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman in the lead roles, accompanied by Cecil Parker and Phyllis Calvert. The picture tells the story of Anna Kalman (Bergman), an actress who finds herself entangled in a romantic affair with the charismatic diplomat Philip Adams (Grant). However, Anna soon discovers that Philip is married, leading to a series of humorous misunderstandings and complications.

Click here to listen to a recording of our CineVerse group discussion of Indiscreet, conducted last week.

Indiscreet thrives on star power. It reunited two iconic Hollywood actors, Grant and Bergman, in their second and final collaboration, after their first appearance together in Hitchcock’s Notorious. Both actors were renowned for their on-screen charm and charisma, and their chemistry in the film adds to its appeal.

Consider that the romantic comedy subgenre was immensely popular during the 1950s. Indiscreet combines elements of romance, humor, and wit, creating an entertaining and lighthearted experience for the audience. It also benefits from a sophisticated milieu, as the film is set and shot in London and features elegant and glamorous locations, adding to its appeal. The movie showcases stylish costumes, lavish interiors, and a sophisticated atmosphere, contributing to its overall charm. This work is also remembered for its urbane, clever, and witty dialogue, filled with banter and repartee between the characters, which adds depth and humor to the story.

Indiscreet’s original incarnation was a stage play, and the challenge here was to make this narrative more cinematic. While there are scenes that occur outside of Anna’s apartment, and the filmmakers try to liven things up with a memorable dance sequence featuring a spry-for-his-age Grant, the picture arguably suffers from feeling stagy and spatially constrained to one primary setting.

Notably, this marks one of the first uses of split screens for the era. This technique would inspire subsequent films like the Doris Day/Rock Hudson sex comedies.

The glamorous costumes, colorful art direction, posh surroundings, and classy cast do much of the heavy lifting. But for a plot that quickly turns on a comically-tinged twist, Indiscreet loses out on a golden opportunity to drive more laughter. Arguably, it’s simply not funny enough for the third act to pay off properly.

Underpinning the story thematically is the notion of selfish chivalry. Philip lies that he’s married but unable to get a divorce, which enables him to sustain a romantic relationship without the pressure of matrimony. He believes he’s doing the right thing, but Anna is rightfully resentful when his deception is uncovered.

The complex and ironic nature of relationships is another subtext explored. Interestingly, Anna doesn’t have a problem having an affair with a presumably married man, but she feels fleeced and disrespected when she learns the truth that he’s been single the entire time. Recall her famous line: How dare he make love to me and not be married! Likewise, Philip is content being the covert lover who quietly rents a suite in the same building as Anna so that he can conveniently slip in and out of her abode, a man perfectly happy to remain in unmarried status with Anna; but once he suspects her of getting attention from other men, he becomes jealous and wants to tie the knot. The movie explores the complexities of love and trust, highlighting the challenges and misunderstandings that can arise within romantic relationships.

Per the Ace Black Movie Blog: “Indiscreet does ask some interesting questions about what some women hope to gain from entering into a relationship with an ultimately unavailable man, and why some men avoid long-term commitments at all costs. Thanks to the central plot twist, the answers are abandoned in favor of a final act that veers towards broad comedy.”

Also at the heart of the matter is the delicate balance between independence and interdependence in relationships. The characters navigate their individual lives while grappling with the compromises and commitments inherent in forging a meaningful connection. Indiscreet asks thought-provoking questions about preserving one's personal identity while fostering a deep bond with another person.

A further message is the interplay between illusion and reality, challenging the notion that what initially appears perfect or ideal always holds true. The characters confront the disparities between their fantasies and the intricate realities of love, prompting them to reassess their expectations and perceptions. Indiscreet is a work about self-expression and self-discovery, as well. As the characters traverse their emotional landscapes, they embark on a journey of self-understanding. Through their romantic experiences, they gain insights into their own desires and feelings, ultimately finding the courage to authentically express themselves.

Similar works

  • Charade (1963): This movie also features Cary Grant in a romantic comedy-mystery directed by Stanley Donen. With its blend of suspense, romance, and clever banter, it captivates viewers in a stylish and captivating way.
  • Pillow Talk (1959): Directed by Michael Gordon, this romantic comedy showcases the charismatic pairing of Doris Day and Rock Hudson. It weaves a tale of mistaken identity, romance, and the complexities of relationships, highlighting the leads' playful chemistry in a witty and delightful manner.
  • The Philadelphia Story (1940): Directed by George Cukor, this timeless romantic comedy boasts a stellar cast including Cary Grant, Katharine Hepburn, and James Stewart. It delves into themes of love, class dynamics, and self-discovery, presenting sophisticated dialogue and memorable performances.
  • An Affair to Remember (1957): Directed by Leo McCarey, this romantic drama stars Cary Grant and Deborah Kerr. The film follows two individuals who meet on a cruise and plan to reunite six months later. It explores themes of love, fate, and the challenges of maintaining a connection.
  • Sabrina (1954): Directed by Billy Wilder, this romantic comedy stars Audrey Hepburn, Humphrey Bogart, and William Holden. It tells the story of a young woman's transformation as she falls in love with the affluent Larrabee brothers. Through its exploration of class, identity, and self-discovery, the film offers an engaging and enchanting narrative.

Other films by Stanley Donen

  • On the Town
  • Royal Wedding
  • Singin’ in the Rain (co-directed by Gene Kelly)
  • Seven Brides for Seven Brothers
  • The Pajama Game
  • Damn Yankees!
  • Charade


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